Spatial data analysis is related to geoprocessing and takes place with geoprocessing tools in ArcToolbox. Some of the functions are:
overlay options- where we get a lot of analysis in; combine spatial and attribute data
And now, a word about buffering: a buffer is an area drawn around a feature at a uniform distance. It usually represents an important area (maybe a floodplain, a protected species habitat, or a service area for a city). The features which lay inside the buffer have different status than the features which lay outside the buffer.